The goal of book restoration and conservation is to restore a book’s function and appearance. A book must be able to be opened and the pages turned without causing damage. Water, soot, mold, poor quality materials, and mishandling all contribute to the deterioration of a volume. The first step in conserving a book starts with an evaluation of the strength and quality of the materials. Tears, missing, or loose pages are identified and mended. Very often, leather and cloth bindings can be repaired, retaining the original covers and spine. When a binding is missing or damaged beyond repair, a new binding in the style of the original can be made. A successful conservation treatment allows the book to be used while retaining as much of the original materials and appearance as possible.